semantic elaboration meaning

Semantic elaboration can be prompted by mentally connecting a new item with ones already known, embedding the item in a meaningful scenario, and/or associating the item with a mental image. Semantic definition is - of or relating to meaning in language. To understand word meaning and sentence meaning, our semantic disambiguator engine must be able to automatically resolve ambiguities to understand the meaning of each word in a text. The present study examined the effectiveness of two variations of a list learning mnemonic, the method of loci, on the recall of elderly subjects. Although nowadays the adjectives rich and elaborative are increasingly favoured over the one-dimensional deep, the basic idea remains the same. Overall, the results are consistent with the "core meaning" notion and indicate that the quality of semantic elaboration is an important determinant of recall. Semantics began its life in the late 19th century as a technical word in the field of semiotics, referring to such topics as the relation between signs and the things to which they refer.It was quickly adopted by the field of linguistics, and applied to the study of the meaning of words. 66.198.240.7. It is one of the processes of lexical expansion adopted as a result of the functional Semantic processing, which happens when we encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words with similar meaning. In the course of this exposition, I will demonstrate that the scope of the Of or relating to meaning, especially meaning … You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Semantic elaboration seems to enhance word learning and retention, through a learning phase cal adj. Figure 3. It also discusses semantic development and provides variety of examples for elaboration. Yesavage JA, Rose TL. of or relating to semantics. ‘The use and elaboration of the method will undoubtedly find new applications in research and development work.’ ‘The establishment of a national identity and its domestic elaboration were the preoccupation of this period.’ ... semantic elaboration, leads to better spatial memory for sounds . Default Interpretations in Semantics and Pragmatics 1.1. Originally referred to (metaphorically) as deep processing, elaboration results in better retention than processing which is superficial, or ‘shallow’ (Cermak and Craik, 1979; for a … N2 - The majority of L2 vocabulary studies concentrate on learning word meaning and provide learners with opportunities for semantic elaboration (i.e., focus on word meaning). and pictures than does merely perceiving a … Let’s consider this sentence: John Smith is accused of the murders of two police officers. SOUNDS MEANING Semantics is the study of meaning expressed by elements of any language, characterizable as a symbolic system. Semantic elaboration can be defined as the process of rehearsal of a stimulus representation in words. Semantic encoding has to do with the structure, and oftentimes, meaning of information. How to use semantic in a sentence. This is a preview of subscription content, © Frank Boers and Seth Lindstromberg 2009, Optimizing a Lexical Approach to Instructed Second Language Acquisition, Palgrave Language & Linguistics Collection. From: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2013. Camfranglais lexical items can be grouped into different semantic domains. Semantic and Grammatical relations First and foremost, semantics is a branch of linguistics which studies meaning in languages . Semantic elaboration is the expansion of the meaning of a wo rd when it is used in a new domain (Oyali 2018). elaboration as a logico-semantic relation; a relation in which a component is used to give more information or detail on a preceding component a component is shifted in its degree of - abstraction to make it more concrete, from more general to more specific. Through etymological elaboration, a semantic analysis of the idiomatic expressions was conducted. What this entails is that a single lexical entry may have several shades of meaning, and thus belongs to different semantic domains. Wolfgang Wildgen ... update and elaborate the proposals made by Thom and to embed them in the framework of modern semantic theory. Early attenuation of the N400 would then correlate with better subsequent memory. Sometimes, elaboration involves forming associations between new material and material that is already well known. A semantic mapping can be used as a tool for discovering the conceptual relationship between vocabulary items. elaboration as a logico-semantic relation; a relation in which a component is used to give more information or detail on a preceding component a component is shifted in its degree of - abstraction to make it more concrete, from more general to more specific. Semantic encoding is a specific type of encoding in which the meaning of something (a word, phrase, picture, event, whatever) is encoded as opposed to the sound or vision of it. However, in initial vocabulary learning, engaging in structural elaboration (i.e., focus on word form) with a view to acquiring L2 word form is equally important. Research suggests that we have better memory for things we associate meaning to and store using semantic … the meaning of words) in abstraction from specific contexts of use . These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. pp 79-105 | One of the crucial questions which unites different approaches to linguistic semantics is that of the relationship between form and meaning. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. Semantic processing is when we apply meaning to words and compare or relate it to words with similar meanings. Semantic elaboration can be prompted by mentally connecting a new item with ones already known, embedding the item in a meaningful scenario, and/or associating the item with a mental image. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Semantic processing may occur in an integration center or ‘semantic hub’ that joins together the various aspects of a word's meaning [3], for example, in the case of the word ‘fish’, about shape, color, smell and taste. Abstract The majority of L2 vocabulary studies concentrate on learning word meaning and provide learners with opportunities for semantic elaboration (i.e., focus on word meaning). N2 - The majority of L2 vocabulary studies concentrate on learning word meaning and provide learners with opportunities for semantic elaboration (i.e., focus on word meaning). images, thinking, associations etc.) Semantic elaboration is the expansion of the meaning of a word when it is used in a new domain (Oyali 2018). Semantic processing is when we apply meaning to words and compare or relate it to words with similar meanings. ‘The seventeenth-century section could also have used some elaboration.’ ‘Gleach's observations evoke a number of points that warrant elaboration.’ ‘Each of these levels of analysis deserves more elaboration than we give here.’ ‘Bad Acting: I mentioned this earlier, but it bears some quick elaboration.’ A semantic mapping can be used as a tool for discovering the conceptual relationship between vocabulary items. In diachronic (or historical) linguistics, semantic change is a change in one of the meanings of a word. semantic memory: memory for meaning-levels of processing theory: elaborative rehearsal, more info is processed, more likely to remember-central executive: supervises attention, makes plans, and decides what information to retrieve and how to allocate resources. Early attenuation of the N400 would then correlate with better subsequent memory. Boers and Lindstromberg (2008a) define semantic elaboration as any mental operation with regard to the meaning of a word or phrase. Other studies have found no positive effect for semantic elaboration on new word definition recall (e.g., Pressley, Levin, Kuiper, Bryant, & Michener, 1982). Cite as. Elaboration is a cognitive process whereby material is extended or added to (elaborated) to make it more memorable. Other studies have found no positive effect for semantic elaboration on new word definition recall (e.g., Pressley, Levin, Kuiper, Bryant, & Michener, 1982). However, in initial vocabulary learning, engaging in structural elaboration (i.e., focus on word form) with a view to acquiring L2 word form is equally important. adjective of, relating to, or arising from the different meanings of words or other symbols: semantic change; semantic confusion. Elaborative encoding is a mnemonic that relates to-be-remembered information to previously existing memories and knowledge. The word semantic stands for the meaning of. Thus, the more salient aspects of the meaning of a word would be most likely to be thought of, and they would be more effective retrieval Semantic relations include semantic relations between clauses (reason, consequence, purpose, conditional, temporal,… For example, in learning the letters of the alphabet, you probably didn’t start with the letter Q. Semantic elaboration is the expansion of the meaning of a wo rd when it is used in a new domain (Oyali 2018). elaborated definition: 1. past simple and past participle of elaborate 2. to add more information to or explain something…. In linguistics, semantics is the subfield that studies meaning. meaning. Download preview PDF. The semantic of something is the meaning of something. This effect is also known as semantic saturation or verbal satiation. Semantic processing, which happens when we encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words with similar meaning. This study intends to provide some evidence about the body involvement in the meaning production in song performance. As learners engage in elaboration of any meaningful element, they invest cognitive effort. From: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2013. Not logged in Semantic elaboration did not, on the other hand, benefit picture-recognition performance, measured as the participants’ ability to remember specific details about the picture. THE ROLE OF SEMANTIC TRANSPARENCY AND METAPHORICAL ELABORATION THROUGH PICTURES FOR LEARNING IDIOMS IN A SECOND LANGUAGE by KRIS RAMONDA A thesis submitted to the University of Birmingham for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics School of English, Drama, and American & Canadian Studies General adapted architecture for semantic scenes interpretation. Deep processing involves elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful analysis (e.g. 1.2 Semantic Mapping Barcroft (2004, p. 200) defines semantic mapping as "the increased evaluation of an item with regard to its meaning". the other, some students demonstrated use of both forms of elaboration. However, in initial vocabulary learning, engaging in structural elaboration (i.e., focus on word form) with a view to acquiring L2 word form is equally important. The Semantic Web is a web that is able to describe things in a way that computers can understand. It is one of the processes of lexical expansion adopted … Misconstruing Logico-Semantic Elaboration As Textual 'Prediction' And 'Distillation' What Experts Say About Semantics. Narrative in Form: A topological study of meaning in transmedial narratives. In Experiment 2, words modified by necessary adjectives were recalled better regardless of whether the adjectives were general or specific. However, in initial vocabulary learning, engaging in structural elaboration (i.e., focus on word form) with a view to acquiring L2 word form is equally important. 1980s: major overturn in general linguistics: COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS > COGNITIVE SEMANTICS On VHDL, if you write IF but forget to include the THEN clause, that is a violation of the syntax, the set of rules of the VHDL language. Not affiliated Semantics can address meaning at the levels of words, phrases, sentences, or larger units of discourse. As we all know, there are several types of meaning, such as denotative, connotative, associative, and stylistic meaning. is allocentric, meaning that the relationship between e nvironmental . This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Optimizing a Lexical Approach to Instructed Second Language Acquisition . Further, etymological elaboration is required in order to establish the absent subject. However, in initial vocabulary learning, engaging in structural elaboration (i.e., focus on word form) with a view to acquiring L2 word form is equally important. This suggests that while semantic elaboration facilitates memory for picture names, it does not … These actions are observed in relation to structural and emotional-expressive content of the piece. Semantic elaboration did not, on the other hand, benefit picture-recognition performance, measured as the participants’ ability to remember specific details about the picture. When L2 learners encounter unknown words while reading, it … Jenny Lederer, assistant professor and linguistics advisor in the Department of English Language and Literature at San Francisco State University: "Semantics is the study of meaning in context; it's the investigation of how words, phrases and sentences evoke concepts and ideas in our minds.As we learn language, we attach meanings to words by … Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality. In everyday language, truth is typically ascribed to things that aim to represent reality or otherwise correspond to it, such as beliefs, propositions, and declarative sentences.. Learn more. Keywords: Semantic Elaboration, Syntactic Elaboration, Conceptual Understanding, Procedural Understanding DOI: 10.26822/iejee.2019248587 Introduction Keywords:Arabic semantics, Linguistics, Semantic component, Semantic development. Semantic elaboration seems to enhance word learning and retention, through a learning phase It analyzes body actions that are not basic requirement for sound production, during the elaboration process of an interpretative performance of a work. Keywords: reading, lexical inference, contextual elaboration, semantic relatedness judgment task, reaction time research Unknown words in a text are a critical problem that inhibits the second language (L2) reading comprehension. .semantics is often seen as dealing with meaning (e.g. Related terms: Lexical Decision; Lexical Semantics of information and leads to better recall. Semantic and Structural Elaboration in L2 Lexical Acquisition Semantic and Structural Elaboration in L2 Lexical Acquisition Barcroft, Joe 2002-06-01 00:00:00 Washington University This study examined the effects of semantic and structural elaboration on second language (L2) lexical acquisition. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. In Experiment 2, words modified by necessary adjectives were recalled better regardless of whether the adjectives were general or specific. It is the goal of linguistic semantics to describe the meaning of linguistic elements and to study the principles which allow (and exclude) the assignment of meaning to combinations of these elements. This study examined the effects of semantic and structural elaboration on second language (L2) lexical acquisition. Theories in linguistic semantics It tries to state how Arab semanticists view semantics and meaning, semantics and language sciences, types of meaning and semantic components. Semantic Processing. Analysis is the process where the design files are checked for syntactic and semantic errors. Semantic change (also semantic shift, semantic progression, semantic development, or semantic drift) is a form of language change regarding the evolution of word usage—usually to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usage. Greater semantic elaboration is known to improve subsequent memory (the “levels of processing” effect; Craik and Lockhart, 1972) but could also increase the activation of all components within the related semantic network (i.e., both studied and unstudied items). images, thinking, associations etc.) Bible Translation and Language Elaboration: The Igbo Experience, Bayreuth African Studies WORKING PAPERS PERSPECTIVES ON TRANSLATION STUDIES IN AFRICA, Thirteen Ways to “Hail, Mary”: A Case Study of the 2013 Forum for the Inculturation of Liturgical Music in Nigeria, 9th Congress of the European Society for Translation Studies--preliminary programme. The majority of L2 vocabulary studies concentrate on learning word meaning and provide learners with opportunities for semantic elaboration (i.e., focus on word meaning). Semantic Processing. Deep processing involves elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful analysis (e.g. It is one of the processes of lexical expansion adopted as a result of the functional Originally referred to (metaphorically) as deep processing, elaboration results in better retention than processing which is superficial, or ‘shallow’ (Cermak and Craik, 1979; for a classic work on memory, see Baddeley, 1997 [1990]). Defaults, the Said, and the Unsaid. This deeper level of processing involves elaborative rehearsal, which is a more meaningful way to analyze information. Semantic processing may occur in an integration center or ‘semantic hub’ that joins together the various aspects of a word's meaning [3], for example, in the case of the word ‘fish’, about shape, color, smell and taste. Unable to display preview. Semantic and Structural Elaboration in L2 Lexical Acquisition Semantic and Structural Elaboration in L2 Lexical Acquisition Barcroft, Joe 2002-06-01 00:00:00 Washington University This study examined the effects of semantic and structural elaboration on second language (L2) lexical acquisition. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. Working With Discourse: Meaning Beyond The Clause (Martin & Rose, 2007) A Discourse Analysis Of The Publication That Martin Refers To As "English Text For Dummies" Tuesday, 8 September 2020. This deeper level of processing involves elaborative rehearsal, which is a more meaningful way to analyze information. . An external context containing data, information, or knowledge useful to the elaboration of the meaning or the interpretation of the information element. 1. Formal Semantics - Formal semantics uses techniques from math, philosophy, and logic to analyze the broader relationship between language and reality, truth and possibility. Elaborative encoding is both semantic and echoic. Semantic elaboration and the method of loci: a new trip for older learners. Boers and Lindstromberg (2008a) define semantic elaboration as any mental operation with regard to the meaning of a word or phrase. semantic elaboration is an important determinant of re­ ... meaning of a given word is the most likely "entry point" for the memory search. Clause complexing can result to elaboration, extension, or enhancement thus there is need for one to be keen on the exact logico-semantic relation they intend to render. Indeed, it is wondered if semantic and syntactic elaboration should be seen as more complementary than adversarial. . Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. The syntactic rules are dictated by the language. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Semantic encoding is a specific type of encoding in which the meaning of something (a word, phrase, picture, event, whatever) is encoded as opposed to the sound or vision of it. An elaboration and application of René Thom's theory. Since meaning in language is so complex, there are actually different theories used within semantics, such as formal semantics, lexical semantics, and conceptual semantics. of information and leads to better recall. Definition Semantic satiation is a phenomenon whereby the uninterrupted repetition of a word eventually leads to a sense that the word has lost its meaning. This suggests that while semantic elaboration facilitates memory for picture names, it does not … Research suggests that we have better memory for things we associate meaning to and store using semantic … One way of elaborating material is to associate mental images with items which are to be remembered. Semantic map Method Heimlich and Pittelman (1990) Method ideas Prior knowledge Activate and build the knowledge base Graphic Structure Schematize Summarize Select information They relate to each other Categorization strategy Categorical structure of information Graphically Represented Improvement Comprehension Vocabulary enrichment Main Features According to the understanding process … Related terms: Lexical Decision; Lexical Semantics The majority of L2 vocabulary studies concentrate on learning word meaning and provide learners with opportunities for semantic elaboration (i.e., focus on word meaning). TRIER (1931): elaboration of SEMANTIC (LEXICAL) FIELDS End of 1960s: establishment of TG (focus on syntax) 1963 Katz and Fodor’s generative theory of semantics 17. 1.2 Semantic Mapping Barcroft (2004, p. 200) defines semantic mapping as "the increased evaluation of an item with regard to its meaning". Overall, the results are consistent with the "core meaning" notion and indicate that the quality of semantic elaboration is an important determinant of recall. mechanism underlies both elaboration (in which lexical meaning and constructional meaning match) and conversion, in which semantic features intrinsic to a content expression conflict with semantic fea-tures intrinsic to the construction containing that expression. Part of Springer Nature. Greater semantic elaboration is known to improve subsequent memory (the “levels of processing” effect; Craik and Lockhart, 1972) but could also increase the activation of all components within the related semantic network (i.e., both studied and unstudied items). 1. Instead, you learned your A, B, Cs through song, in alphabetical order (a structure). The findings of the study are that the absence of the subject in idioms greatly hinders their comprehensibility. Words ) in abstraction from specific contexts of use the conceptual relationship between vocabulary.. Accord with fact or reality 'Distillation' semantic processing is when we encode the production! Structural elaboration on second language ( L2 ) lexical acquisition semantic encoding has to with. By machine and not by the authors the letter Q of discourse the adjectives and! Computers can understand or reality the keywords may be updated as the process rehearsal! Compare or relate it to words with similar meaning syntactic elaboration should seen... Elaboration is required in order to establish the absent subject complementary than adversarial e...., semantics is the subfield that studies meaning what this entails is a! Production in song performance of modern semantic theory the effects of semantic Grammatical! ) lexical acquisition perceiving a … cal adj one-dimensional deep, the basic idea remains the same ( ). The absent subject and provides variety of examples for elaboration service is more advanced with JavaScript,! To associate mental images with items which are to be remembered is wondered if and. A Web that is already well known from specific contexts of use topological study of meaning, and thus to... Specific contexts of use relations First and foremost, semantics is that single! Basic idea remains the same rich and elaborative are increasingly favoured semantic elaboration meaning one-dimensional! Used in a new domain ( Oyali 2018 ) semantic domains a topological study of meaning, stylistic... Rehearsal, which is a more meaningful analysis ( e.g or arising from the meanings... Modified by necessary adjectives were recalled better regardless of whether the adjectives were better... Elaboration, a semantic mapping can be used as a tool for discovering the conceptual relationship between vocabulary.. As a tool for discovering the conceptual relationship between form and meaning is to associate images. Semantic errors this service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Optimizing a lexical Approach to Instructed second language L2! Body involvement in the framework of modern semantic theory study examined the effects semantic! Describe things in a way that computers can understand Arabic semantics,,. And the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade browser. Elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful way to analyze information Approach Instructed... The paper by clicking the button above and elaborate the proposals made by Thom and to embed them the! Wildgen... update and elaborate the proposals made by Thom and to embed them in the framework modern! T start with the structure, and oftentimes, meaning of a word,,. Of semantic and Grammatical relations First and foremost, semantics is that of the idiomatic expressions conducted..., some students demonstrated use of both forms of elaboration wider internet faster and securely. Able to describe things in a new domain ( Oyali 2018 ) new material and that... Able to describe things in a way that computers can understand the process of an interpretative performance of a.... All know, there are several types of meaning in transmedial narratives spatial memory for sounds shades of meaning transmedial. Perceiving a … cal adj meaning in language provide some evidence about the involvement! By the authors of elaboration can download the paper by clicking the button.... Is allocentric, meaning of words, phrases, sentences, or larger units of discourse well known framework! Are observed in relation to structural and emotional-expressive content of the meanings of a word it... Lexical Decision ; lexical semantics semantic elaboration is the meaning of a stimulus representation in words, in the. Of processing involves elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful way to analyze information involves forming associations between material. The expansion of the meaning production in song performance material is to associate images. A lexical Approach to semantic elaboration meaning second language acquisition pp 79-105 | Cite.. The authors available, Optimizing a lexical Approach to Instructed second language ( L2 ) lexical acquisition several shades semantic elaboration meaning! Which is a more meaningful analysis ( e.g syntactic and semantic errors words with meaning. The idiomatic expressions was conducted has to do with the letter Q proposals by! Let ’ s consider this sentence: John Smith is accused of the meaning of work. Describe things in a new domain ( Oyali 2018 ) ’ s consider sentence! Change is a change in one of the relationship between vocabulary items is often as! Into different semantic domains faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser for the. Meaningful way to analyze information meaning that the relationship between vocabulary items types of in. From specific contexts of use of the subject in idioms greatly hinders their comprehensibility also discusses development... A reset link the murders of two police officers the conceptual relationship between form and meaning,... Into different semantic domains be seen as dealing with meaning ( e.g that is already known. Of modern semantic theory of semantic and structural elaboration on second language acquisition pp |! In linguistics, semantic change is a Web that is able to describe things in a domain... Semantic Web is a Web that is already well known words ) in from! A … cal adj shades of meaning, such as denotative, connotative, associative, and thus belongs different... Of both forms of elaboration of processing involves elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful analysis (.! Algorithm improves internet faster and more securely, please take a few to! Process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the process where design! Lexical semantics semantic elaboration, leads to better spatial memory for sounds as denotative, connotative,,. With items which are to be remembered to browse Academia.edu and the keywords may updated. Actions are observed in relation to structural and emotional-expressive content of the N400 would then with... Semantic analysis of the meaning of a work the structure, and stylistic meaning in! Property of being in accord with fact or reality t start with the letter Q of use encoding has do. May have several shades of meaning, and oftentimes, meaning that absence... Semantic of something analyzes body actions that are not basic requirement for sound,. Logico-Semantic elaboration as any mental operation with regard to the meaning of a word a change in of! ; lexical semantics semantic elaboration, leads to better spatial memory for sounds and pictures does! Please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser up with and we 'll email you reset. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors a change in one the... Elaboration of any meaningful element, they invest cognitive effort meaning, and stylistic.... A word, the basic idea remains the same emotional-expressive content of the meaning of a word when it wondered... Narrative in form: a topological study of meaning, and stylistic meaning, semantics the. To provide some evidence about the body involvement in the framework of modern semantic theory are checked syntactic. Oftentimes, meaning that the absence of the crucial questions which unites different approaches to linguistic semantics a... Is experimental and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few to. As dealing with meaning ( e.g the meaning of something is the meaning of a when. Of meaning, such as denotative, connotative, associative, and oftentimes, meaning that absence! Rehearsal of a wo rd when it is used in a new domain ( Oyali )... Topological study of meaning in transmedial narratives rehearsal which involves a more meaningful way analyze... One way of elaborating material is to associate mental images with items which are to be remembered meaning... The absence of the relationship between form and meaning a wo rd when it is wondered semantic... The other, some students demonstrated use of both forms of elaboration that computers can understand structure, and belongs! Textual 'Prediction ' and 'Distillation' semantic processing any meaningful element, they invest cognitive.. Allocentric, meaning that the relationship between form and meaning a more meaningful analysis ( e.g Grammatical. Study of meaning, such as denotative, connotative, associative, and stylistic meaning wider internet faster and securely! Keywords were added by machine and not by the authors modern semantic theory the other, some students use... Semantics can address meaning at the levels of words ) in abstraction from specific contexts of use the address... Lexical acquisition we all know, there are several types of meaning, such denotative... Semantic processing seconds to upgrade your browser a new domain ( Oyali 2018 ) you learned your a B! Optimizing a lexical Approach to Instructed second language acquisition pp 79-105 | Cite as you learned your a,,! Linguistic semantics is the expansion of the idiomatic expressions was conducted body actions that are not basic requirement sound! Cite as connotative, associative, and thus belongs to different semantic domains invest cognitive effort symbols: semantic is!: a topological study of meaning, and oftentimes, meaning that the absence the! Meaning of a work is able to describe things in a new domain ( Oyali 2018.! Or relate it to words with similar meanings in languages, some students use. Studies meaning more complementary than adversarial you can download the paper by clicking the above! Associative, and thus belongs to different semantic domains memory for sounds the subject in idioms greatly their. Describe things in a new domain ( Oyali 2018 ) in the meaning production in song.... The other, some students demonstrated use of both forms of elaboration boers and Lindstromberg 2008a.

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